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UNITED STATES AIR MAIL SERVICE  

PILOTS' DIRECTIONS

NEW YORK-SAN FRANCISCO ROUTE  

DISTANCES, LANDMARKS, COMPASS

COURSE, EMERGENCY AND REGULAR

LANDING FIELDS, WITH SERVICE AND

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES AT

PRINCIPAL POINTS ON ROUTE

 WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1921

Post Office Department,

                      Office of Assistant Postmaster General,

                                                                Division of Air mails.

These flying directions and the ground information were prepared with the cooperation of pilots and supervisory officials of the Air Mail Service and with the assistance of the postmaster located within 5 miles of the line of flight. All  employees of the Air Mail Service will be required to familiarize themselves with the information relating to the section of the route with which they are concerned.

Otto Praeger

second assistant Postmaster General                                               

Washington, D. C.

                      February 20, 1921

TRANSCONTINENTAL AIR MAIL.  

PILOT'S LOG OF DISTANCES, LANDMARKS,  AND  FLYING

DIRECTION'S.   

I.  

            NEW YORK TO BELLEFONTE.

 

 0. Hazelhurst Field., Long Island.--Follow the tracks of the Long Island Railroad past Belmont Park- race track, keeping Jamaica on the left.  Cross New York over the lower end of Central Park.  

25.  Newark, N.J. -Heller Field is located in Newark and may be identified as follows: The field is 1-1/4 miles west of the Pasaic River and lies in the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad.  The Morris Canal bound the western edge of the field.  The roof of the large steel hanger is painted an orange color.

  25. 30. Orange Mountains--Cross the Orange mountains over a small round lake or pond. Slightly to the right of course will be seen the polo field and golf  course of essex country club About 8 miles to the north is Mountain Lake, easily seen after crossing the orange mountains.  

50   

  50Morristown, N J.-About 4 miles north of course.Identified by group of yellow buildings east of the city. The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad pass the eastern side of Morristown.

60.    Lake Hopatcong-- -A large irregular lake 10 miles north of course

64.   Budd Lake.--Large circular body of water 6 miles north of course.

78.          78. Belvidere, N. J.-On the Delaware Rv. Twelve miles to the north is the Delaware Water Gap and  11  miles to the south is Easton at the junction of the Lehigh and Delaware Rivers. The Delaware makes a pronounced U--shaped bend just north of Belvidere. A railway joins the  two ends of the U

    1111111. Lehighton, Pa.---Directly on course. The Lehigh Valley and Central Railroad of N.J.  running parallel pass three miles through Lehighton. The Lehigh River runs between the railroads at this point. Lehighton is approximately half way between Hazelhurst and Bellefonte. A fair sized elliptical race track lies just southwest of town but  a larger and better emergency landing field lies about 100 yards west of  the race track. The field is very long and lies in a north south direction.

114.  Mauch Chunk.-Three miles north of Lehighton and on the direct course.

121.  Central Railroad of New Jersey.-Two long triangular bodies of water northwest of the railroad followed  by eight or nine small artificial lakes or ponds about half a mile apart almost parallel with the course but veering slightly to the south.

148.  Catawissa Mountain Range, which appears to curve in a semicircle about a large open space of country directly on the course. To the north of the course may be seen the eastern branch of the Susquehanna. Fly parallel to this until Shamokin Creek is picked up. This Creek is very black and is paralleled by two railroads. Shamokin Creek empties into the Susquehanna just below Sunbury.

168.  Sunbury, Pa.-At the junction of the two branches of the Susquehanna River. The infield of  a race track on a small island at the junction of two rivers furnishes a good landing field. The river to the south of Sunbury is wider than to the north and is filled with numerous small islands. The two branches to the north have practically no islands. If the river is reached and Sunbury is not in sight look for islands. If there none, follow the river south to Sunbury. If islands are numerous, follow the river north to Sunbury.

170.  Lewisburg, Pa.-Two miles west of Sunbury and 8 miles north.

174   After leaving Sunbury the next landmark to pick up is Penns Creek. Which empties into the Susquehanna 7 miles south of Sunbury. Flying directly on course. Penns Creek is reached 6 miles after it joins the Susquehanna 7 miles south of sunbury.

178.  New Berlin,-Identified by covered bridge over Penns Creek.

185.  The Pennsylvania Railroad from Lewisburg is crossed at the point where the range of mountains coming up from the southwest ends. The highway leaves the railroad here and goes up into Woodward Pass, directly on the course, A white fire tower may be seen on the crest of the last mountain to the north on leaving the pass.

202.  The next range of mountains is crossed through  the pass at Millheim, a small town. A lone mountain may be seen to the south just across the Pennsylvania tracks.

217.  Bellefonte, Pa.-After crossing another mountain range with a pass Bellefonte will be seen against the Bald Eagle Mountain Range. On top of a mountain, just south of a  gap is the Bald Eagle Range at Bellefonte, may be seen a clearing with a few trees scattered in it. This identifies this gap from others in this range. The mail field lies just east of town and is marked by a large white circle. A white line marks the eastern edge of the field where there is a drop of nearly 100 feet.  

BELLEFONTE TO CLEVELAND. 

Miles

0.    Bellefonte.-Compass course to Cleveland approximately 3100. Fly directly toward and over bare spot on mountain top south of gap in Bald Eagle Range. First range of mountains.

3.    Pennsylvania Railroad, following course of Bald Eagle Creek.

17.    New York Central Railroad, following course of Moshannon Creek.

35.    Clearfield, Pa.-On west branch of Susquehanna River. A small race track  here serves as an emergency landing field. Two railroads, one from the north and one from the east, enter Clearfield and both go south from here.

55.    B. & M. Junction.-One branch of the Buffalo, Rochelle & Pittsburgh from the east forms a junction here with the N. & S. line of the Buffalo. Rochelle & Pittsburgh Railroad. Dubois is 2 miles north of course on the N. & S. line of the railroad.

70.    Brookville.-One mile north of course, west of city, is 2-mile race track which makes an excellent emergency field.

86.    Clarion.-One mile north of course. Emergency field marked by white cross and red-brick hangar is here. The Clarion river passes north edge of city. Railroad from the east ends here

110.  Franklin, Pa.-Seven miles north of course at junction of Allegheny River and French Creek. Cross Allegheny River where there is a pronounced horseshoe bend. This is due south of Franklin.

122.  Sandy Lake.-Two miles north of course. Cross the Pennsylvania Railroad at right angles 2 miles south of sandy Lake.

138.    Shenango.-Two miles north of course. Three railroads enter this town from the north. Two continue south and one runs east for 3 miles and then turns southeast.

152.  New York Central Railroad. running north and south. One mile north of course the Erie crosses the New York Central at right angles. Four miles west of Erie should be crossed where it turns southward. Eight miles south of course is Warren. with eight railroads radiating out.

157.    Pennsylvania Railroad, running north and south.

  165.    Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Running diagonally northeast-southwest.

206.    Cleveland on Lake Erie,-The mail field is in East Cleveland between the two railroads that follow the lake shore. The field is near the edge of the city and near the edge of the freight yards of the New York Central. The field is distinctly marked by long cinder runway. The airmail hangar is in the southwest corner of the field. The Martin factory is in the northwest corner of the field. 

Cleveland to Bellefonte. 

Miles.

0.    Cleveland, Ohio,-Fly approximately 1300 compass course.

49.    Warren,-Eight miles south of course with eight railroads radiating out. Three of these railroads are crossed at 7-mile intervals, the third one turning east where the course crosses it, and crosses a fourth 5 miles farther on.

58.    The junction of the Erie Railroad and New York Central is about 2 miles north of course. The Erie from this point where it was crossed. 8 miles north of Warren and 3 miles east. runs eastward in the general direction of the course for about 15 miles.

68.    Shenango, Pa.-Two miles north of course on Shenango River. Three railroads enter Shenango from the north. two continue south, while one runs east for 3 miles and then southeast. This railroad should be crossed diagonally St. Kremis Station, 5 miles east of Shenango.

84.    Sandy Lake.-Two miles north of course. Cross Pennsylvania Railroad at right angles 2 miles south of Sandy Lake.

96.    Franklin, Pa.-Seven miles north of course at junction of French Creek and Allegheny River. The Allegheny should be crossed 7 miles south of Franklin. where the river makes a pronounced  horseshoe bend. There is an emergency landing field at Franklin used by passenger-carrying outfit. Flying directly on the course the river is crossed four times.

120.  Clarion, Pa.-One mile north of course. Emergency field east of city marked by red-brick hangar with white cross on the roof. Large field. but always soft after rain.

136.    Brookville, Pa.-One mile north of course. West of city is 2 mile race track that serves as an excellent emergency landing field.

147.    Reynoldsville, Pa.-One mile south of course on Pennsylvania Railroad. which follows Sandy Lick Creek from  Brookville. The Pennsylvania crosses the course above Reynoldsville. running in a north-south direction.

151.  Dubois, Pa.-Three miles north of course on Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad. A branch of the railroad from the east forms the C. & M. Junction directly on the course. Follow this eastern branch of the railroad for about 5 miles, as it is directly on course.

171.    Clearfield, Pa.-On the west branch of the Susquehanna River. A small race track here can be used as an emergency field, although it is rather small. Two railroads one from the north and one from the east, converge 1 mile east of Clearfield, and continue southward.

196.    Snowshoe Pa,.-Seven miles north of course. A small race track may be seen here. Halfway between Clearfield and Bellefonte the course crosses Moshannon Creek. The New York Central crosses this creek directly on the course. Cross the Bald Eagle Mountain Range through the pass. and Bellefonte will be seen in the valley beyond.

206.    Bellefonte, Pa.-The field is east of Bellefonte and is marked by a large white circle. A white line marks the eastern edge of the field. east of which is a deep ravine.

III.

CLEVELAND TO CHICAGO

Miles

0.      Martin Field, Cleveland.-Fly a little west of south for nearly 10 miles or about seven minutes flying and then due west, thus keeping over good emergency landing fields. The country between Cleveland and Chicago is divided into sections, section lines running due north and south and east and west. for the first 15 miles the lake shore is only a few miles north of the course.

20.    Elyria, Ohio.-Five miles north of course. Five railroads radiate out of Elyria.

37.    Vermilion.-Two miles north of course. On Lake Erie. The New York Central Railroad follows the shore line of the lake from Vermilion to Sandusky.

55.    Sandusky.-Five miles north of the course on Sandusky Bay, a large irregular body of water crossed by the New York Central Railroad. Continues due west from this point, following the east west section lines.

112.  Maumee River, which you cross about 5 miles northeast of Grand Rapids and 5 miles south of Waterville. Waterville is on the east bank of the Maumee and Grand Rapids is on the south bank of the river where it turns east and parallels the course for 7 miles.

130.  Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railroad, crossed at right angles. Wausen is 7 miles north of the course and Napoleon is 5 miles south, both on the above-mentioned railroad. By flying 11 miles north from the point where the Maumee River is crossed and then due west the New York Central four-track railroad will be picked up just before reaching Bryan.

152.  Bryan, is located on the south side of the New York Central tracks, where they are crossed by the Chicago & Western and North Railroads. Landing field with hangar and T  cinder runway is north of town. Field is two-way, 2,000 feet east and west. Best approach from the east.

172.    Hamilton.-Two miles north of course and 4 miles north of Bryan. On the extreme south end of irregular-shaped lake. The Wabash Railroad runs to the south of Hamilton. By keeping the Wabash Railroad in sight for the next 125 miles, You will come in sight of Lake Michigan.

 III.

CLEVELAND TO CHICAGO

Miles

0.      Martin Field, Cleveland.-Fly a little west of south for nearly 10 miles or about seven minutes flying and then due west, thus keeping over good emergency landing fields. The country between Cleveland and Chicago is divided into sections, section lines running due north and south and east and west. for the first 15 miles the lake shore is only a few miles north of the course.

20.    Elyria, Ohio.-Five miles north of course. Five railroads radiate out of Elyria.

37.    Vermilion.-Two miles north of course. On Lake Erie. The New York Central Railroad follows the shore line of the lake from Vermilion to Sandusky.

55.    Sandusky.-Five miles north of the course on Sandusky Bay, a large irregular body of water crossed by the New York Central Railroad. Continues due west from this point, following the east west section lines.

112.  Maumee River, which you cross about 5 miles northeast of Grand Rapids and 5 miles south of Waterville. Waterville is on the east bank of the Maumee and Grand Rapids is on the south bank of the river where it turns east and parallels the course for 7 miles.

130.  Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railroad, crossed at right angles. Wausen is 7 miles north of the course and Napoleon is 5 miles south, both on the above-mentioned railroad. By flying 11 miles north from the point where the Maumee River is crossed and then due west the New York Central four-track railroad will be picked up just before reaching Bryan.

152.  Bryan, is located on the south side of the New York Central tracks, where they are crossed by the Chicago & Western and North Railroads. Landing field with hangar and T  cinder runway is north of town. Field is two-way, 2,000 feet east and west. Best approach from the east.

172.    Hamilton.-Two miles north of course and 4 miles north of Bryan. On the extreme south end of irregular-shaped lake. The Wabash Railroad runs to the south of Hamilton. By keeping the Wabash Railroad in sight for the next 125 miles, You will come in sight of Lake Michigan.

 196.    Walcottville,-At the intersection of the Wabash and Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroads.

220.  Goshen, Ind.-Three miles north of course. The Chicago & St. Louis Railroad is crossed at right angles 3 miles south and 1 mile east of Goshen.

243.  South Bend, Ind.-Seven miles north of course. The Chicago & st. Louis Railroad is crossed at right angles 7 miles south of South Bend.

265.  La Port, Ind.-One mile north of course. The New York Central Railroad running east from La Porte Parallels the course to the lower edge of Lake Michigan.

289.  Crisman, Ind.-Coaling station with large black coal chute north side of track; has also large race track with course 31/2  miles north and 11/2  miles east. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad crosses Wabash at Crisman. Leaving Crisman fly westerly, following shore of the lake, but keeping about 10 miles from the waters edge to insure safe emergency landing.

314.  Lake Calumet.-Largest and most westerly of three lakes. From northern extremity of Lake Calumet fly northwest on compass course of 3150. Ashburn Field comes into view to the west and a large gas reservoir to the east. A large drainage canal will be seen ahead. To your left, where the Des Plains River enters the drainage canal, the canal makes a 450 turn to the south. Following the Des Plaines River for about 10 miles you will see a large hospital and old race track. This is the speedway and adjoins the air-mail field on the west.

330.  Chicago air-mail field or Checkerboard field,-Three large air-mail hangars in southwest corner of field and private hangar in northeast corner. Four-way field, but best approach from the south. Telephone and high-tension wires to west and wires and trees to east of field. Land on large cinder runways. Sewage-disposal plant with excavations on west side of field. Landing area of this field large and ample. Telegraph and post-office address of this is Maywood, Ill. Field is 14 miles west of Chicago post office.

IV. 

CHICAGO TO OMAHA.

Miles

0.      Maywood Ill.-Checkerboard field. Fly directly west, picking up the third railroad to the north of the field. This is the Chicago & North Western. By keeping on the section lines and flying directly west this railroad can be kept in sight at all time until Iowa City is reached. It has white ballast and is double-tracked.

14.    Wheaton.-Directly on course.Town rests in elongated U formed by Chicago & North Western Railroad. Water tower serves as a landmark.

24.    Geneva on the Fox River.-One mile north of course. Two branches of the Chicago & North Western cross each other here at right angles.

84.    Dixon.-Three miles north of course on Rock River.

96.    Twin Cities of Stirling and Rock Falls.-One on each side of the Rock River.

130.    Mississippi River.-The Mississippi River should be crossed about 6 miles below Clinton, Iowa. which is on the west bank of the Mississippi. Flying in the same direction, the Wapsipinacan River will show up soon after crossing the Mississippi. The Wapsipinacan empties into the Mississippi a few miles south of the course. Fly in the same general direction with the river in view for 24 miles. The Chicago Rock Island & Pacific runs in the same general direction as the river and is never more than 3 miles from it until Dixon Iowa, is reached.

154.  Dixon, Iowa.-One mile north of the course and 1 mile west of the Wapsipinacan River, which turns north at this point. Dixon lies between the Chicago Rock Island & Pacific and the C. N. W. & St. P.. which crosses about 1 mile east of Dixon.

173.  Tipton, Iowa.-Five miles north of course. Soon after Tipton is reached, Cedar Rapids will be crossed. The Cedar River flows southeast at this point.

191.  Iowa City Iowa.-On the eastern bank of the Iowa River. The Chicago Rock Island & Pacific has four lines running out of Iowa City. The air-mail field is south of town and on the western bank of the river. The field is small and is longer east and west.

215.  Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway.

233.  Chicago & North Western Railway.

240.    Montezuma.-Directly on course on Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway.

249.    Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway.

253.    Minneapolis & St. Louis. Railway-Short Line.

255.    Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway. 

271.  Monroe.-Slightly south of course on Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad. Three lines out of this town.

296.  Des Moines.-Five miles north of course. Largest city near course between Iowa City and Omaha. Keep the Raccoon River in sight until about 18 miles out. From here on keep the Chicago, Rock Island & pacific in sight. this Railroad follows the direction of the  Raccoon River for this distance. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific is 2 to 7 miles north of the course.

368.  Atlantic, Iowa.-Three miles north of the course on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway. At Atlantic the railroads branch in five directions. If on the course at this point, that is , 3 miles south of Atlantic, fly nearly due west until Council Bluffs is seen.

413.  Council Bluffs Iowa.-Five miles east of the Missouri River.

418.  Missouri River, which is very irregular in its course and width at this point.

424.  Omaha, Nebr.-Field is west of city and can be identified by large hangar with white circle and cross on roof. North of field is large race track and grandstand. There are two good approaches, from north and west.

OMAHA TO CHEYENNE.

Miles

0.      Omaha, Nebr.-The air mail field is on the western outskirts of the city, and is 5 miles west of the Missouri River. The field is rectangular, the long way of the rectangle being east and west. On the north side of the field is a long grand stand facing northward and extending east and west. To the north of the grandstand is a large field with an elliptical race track in it. This race track is an excellent landmark, and the oval may be used for landing if necessary. The west side of the mail field is bounded by a brook, a few trees and a railroad track. On the south the field is bounded by a paved road which ends to the eastward at the Missouri River. This same road runs due west for several miles beyond the mail field. On the south side of the field are some tall trees and a few telephone poles. A private hangar is situated across the road from the air mail field  with the word "Airdrome" painted on the roof. The air mail hangar is located in the southeast corner of the field. The east side of the field is bounded by two steel wireless towers and a hill covered with tall trees. From the northwest is the best approach, although landing can be made from any direction if made into the wind.

20.    The Platte River.-Is crossed at right angles by flying due west from the Omaha field. By noting section lines the pilot can determine the correct compass course correcting for drift, as North Platte and Cheyenne are almost due west of Omaha. For a distance of 70 miles the Platte River is north of the course never at a greater distance than 10 miles. The Platte River should be crossed between two bridges, one 2 miles north and the other 2 miles south of course.

21.    Yutan.-Directly on the course 1 mile west of the Platte River, 5 lines of railroads form a junction at this point.

33.    Wahoo.-A fair sized town 3 miles south of the course. Six railroads radiate from Wahoo. An excellent emergency landing field is located one-half mile south of Wahoo; a smooth barley field approximately 1 mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. By noting section lines and flying 25 miles west for each mile south, a direct course may be maintained.

59.   David City.-A quarter of a mile north of the course. Six railroads

radiate from this city also.

82.    Osceola.-Four miles south of the course. The Union Pacific tracks almost parallel the course from David City to Osceola, where they turn to the southward. Osceola may be identified by a mile race track just south of the town.

96.    The Platte River is crossed again and runs southwestward. The Union Pacific Railroad is crossed just beyond the Platte River a half a mile north of the small town of Clarks. Twelve miles southwest is Central City on the Union Pacific Railroad. This city is 7 miles south of the course. Central city is directly east of North Platte. If the pilot passes directly over the city, the east-west section lines can be followed directly into North Platte. Thirty-five miles southwest of Clarks Island is a direct line with Central City. Grand Island is 20 miles south of the course. At Grand Island there is a commercial flying field where supplies of oil and gas may be purchased.

132.  St. Paul, directly on the course.-Ten miles east of St. Paul one branch of Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad runs directly west to St. Paul and lies on the course. Five railroads radiate out of St. Paul. The Middle Loop River is crossed 1 mile east of  St. Paul.

161.  Loop City.-Is 5 miles north of course on the east bank of Middle Loup River, which is crossed almost due south of Loup City. The Union Pacific Railroad paralleling the river is crossed 1 mile east of the river.

176.  The Chicago, Burlington & Quincey Railroad tracks following a tiny stream are crossed. The railroad runs northwest-southeast at this point.

183.  Mason City.-On the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad; is two miles north of the course.

216.  The Union Pacific Railroad, running northeast. southwest. is crossed midway between Lodi and Oconto: Lodi to the north and Oconto to the south. A small creek runs through Oconto which distinguishes it from Lodi.

248.  North Plate.-After crossing the Union Pacific Railroad no distinguishing landmarks are available. but flying west the Platte River will be seen to the south. gradually getting nearer to the course. The city of North Platte is located at the junction of the north and south branches of the Platte River. The field is located on the east bank of the north branch about 21/2 miles east of the town. just 100 yards south of Lincoln Highway Bridge. Another bridge, the Union Pacific Railroad bridge, crosses the stream a mile further north. The field is triangular with the hangar at the apex of the triangle and on the bank of the river. The field, which is bounded on the southwest by the river bank and on the north side by a ditch, has an excellent turf covered surface always in a dry condition. The field is longer east and west and best approached is from the end away from the hangar. Cross field landings should not be attempted near the hangar, as the field is narrow at this point. The altitude of North Platte is 2,800 feet or about 2,000 feet higher than the Omaha field.

298.    Ogallala.-The south branch of the Platte River parallels the course to this point and the north branch is only a mile a or two north of the course, veering gradually to the northward. The double track of the Union Pacific Railroad follow the course to this point. Fly directly west from this point, the south branch of the Platte River and the Union Pacific Railroad, veering southward.

338.    Chappell.-Two miles south of the course on the Union Pacific tracks and on the north bank  of the Lodgepole Creek.

342.    Lodgepole.-Directly on the course between the Union Pacific Railroad and Lodgepole Creek. From here on to Sidney the course lies over the Union Pacific Railroad tracks and Lodgepole Creek.

360.  Sidney.-The Union Pacific double track runs through here east and west. crossed at right angles by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad running north and south. Two miles west of Sidney the Union Pacific double track veers to the north, following the course of the Lodgepole Creek.. The course due west. lies from 4 to 6 miles south of the railroad and creek for the next 60 miles.

395.  Kimball.-Five miles north of the course on the Union Pacific Railroad and Lodgepole Creek.

420.  Pine Bluff.-On the Union Pacific Railroad 2 miles north of the course The railroad and creek again cross the course, the railroad turning west to Cheyenne and the creek, continuing south for 4 miles and then eastward. The country between Sidney and Pine Bluff is the roughest on the whole course from Omaha to Cheyenne. but plenty of emergency fields are found. A ridge extends southward from Pine Bluff, on which numerous dark green trees may be seen. Two miles southwest of Pine Bluff the Union Pacific tracks are crossed and for 5 miles lie south of the course. Then another intersection of the course and the railroad looping to the northward and again crossing the course at the small town of Archer.

499.  Archer.-A small town on the Union Pacific Railroad and 8 miles from Cheyenne.

458.    Cheyenne.-Can be identified by the barracks of Ft Russell. The Cheyenne field is three-quarters of a mile due north of the town and due north of the capitol building, whose gilded dome is unmistakable. The field though rolling is very large and landing may be made from any direction. A pilot landing here for the first time must "watch his step", as the rarified atmosphere at this altitude (6,000 feet) makes rough landings the rule rather than the exception.

CHEYENNE TO SALT LAKE.

           Two descriptions are given of this route from Cheyenne to Rock Springs, the following being the shorter:

Miles.

0.    Cheyenne.-A white hanger. small white office building, and the wireless towers are on the southwest corner of the field. Field is extensive and the surface is hard. Fly over Ft. Russell and follow the Colorado & Southern tracks to Federal.

12.    Federal.-The first town on the Colorado & Southern tracks after it makes a sharp bend to the north. From here almost directly west will  be seen black irregular peaks in the Laramie Mountains. Fly over the mountains just to the north of these peaks. This will bring you into the Laramie Valley about due east of Laramie.

40.    Laramie.-Is the largest town in the valley. Landing fields abound throughout the valley.

61.    Sheep Mountains.-The flat top of these mountains resembles a huddled-up bunch of sheep. A short range about 10 miles long. Pass to the north of the mountains and fly due west over the Medicine Bow Range.

77.    Medicine Bow Range.-Extending north and south. Cross this range at right angles and you come out in the valley of the North Platte River. Landing fields abound throughout this valley. To the west may be seen the Sierra Madre Range. Identified by high white peaks, with the range extending southeast-northwest. Pass to the north of the mountains part of this range where the rounded hills are covered with dense pine forests. From here fly about 70 north of west. compass course. You will pass over a rather high and dry plateau cut up by irregular canyons, but with a number of landing fields that can be reached from an 8,000 foot altitude. Continue westward, veering to the north until the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad are seen to the north. Cross the Union Pacific tracks to the north if Black Buttes. a small town on the Union Pacific. ahead will be seen an irregular butte known as Black Butte. Pass to the north of this and the Aspen Mountains will be seen to the southwest and the Table Mountain Range to the west and a little to the north. The top of Table Mountain Range is almost flat with the exception of Pilot Butte. This is a symmetrical, flat top butte on the top of the range. Fly directly toward the Pilot Butte. This will take you over a dry sandy valley across the Union Pacific tracks near Baxter over a low range of hills to the Rock Springs landing field.

         The following description does not follow the direct course and is about 10 miles farther than the route described previously. The country over this course is better suited for forced landings, and in case of a forced landing the pilot is nearer human habitation.

Miles.

0.    Cheyenne.-Fly west or to the north of Fort Russell, which is about 4 miles from town, following the Colorado & Southern tracks to the point where they bend sharply to the north.

12.    Federal.-The first town on the Colorado & Southern Railroad after the rail makes a sharp bend to the north. Fly about 6 miles south of Federal and leave the Colorado & Southern tracks about 1 mile north of the pronounced bend. The compass course, when there is no cross wind, is about3100 . Cross Sherman  Hills or Laramie Mountains at about 9,000 feet above sea level. Crossing the range of mountains the Laramie appears. where landing fields abound.

40.    Laramie.-On the Union Pacific double track railroad. The largest town in the valley. Pass 6 miles to the north of Laramie.

60.    Rock River.-On the Union Pacific, 20 miles north of the course. The double track Union Pacific passes through 2 miles of snow sheds at this point.

80.    Elk Mountain.-To the north of Medicine Bow Range, a black and white range of mountains, the black part of which are forests and the white snow covered rocks. Elk Mountain is 12,500 feet high. Fly to the north of the conspicuous mountain over high, rough country. The Union Pacific tracks will be seen about 25 miles to the north gradually converging with the course.

114.  Walcott.-Cross the S. & E. Railroad 2 miles south of Walcott.. The S.& E. joins the Union Pacific at this point.

134.  Rawlins.-Follow the general direction of the Union Pacific  tracks to Rawlins, which is on the Union Pacific tracks. The country between Walcott and Rawlins is fairly level , but covered with sage brush, which makes landing dangerous. Rawlins is on the north side of the Union Pacific tracks at a point about a mile east of where the tracks cut through a low ridge of hills. Large railroad shops distinguish the town. The emergency field provided here lies about 11/4 miles northeast of town at the base of a large hill. Landings are made almost invariably to the west. Surface of the field is fairly good, as the sage brush has been removed. Easily identified by this, as the surrounding country is covered with sage brush. Landings can be made in any direction into the wind if care is exercised. Several ranch buildings and two small black shacks on the eastern side of the field help distinguish it. Leaving Rawlins follow the Union Pacific tracks to Creston.

159.  Creston.-A small station the Union Pacific is the point where the course crosses the continental divide.

175.    Wamsutter.-On the Union Pacific. Fairly good fields are found between Rawlins and a point 60 miles west. Fields safe to land in show up on account of the absence of sage brush. The course leaves the railroad where the Union Pacific tracks loop to the southeast.

215.  Black Butte.-A large black hill of rock south of the course. The Union Pacific Railroad is crossed just before reaching Black Butte.

231.  Rock Springs.-After Passing Black Butte, Pilot Butte will be seen projecting above and forming a part of the Table Mountain Range. This butte is of whitish stone. Head directly toward Pilot Butte and Rock Springs will be passed on the northern side. The field is in the valley at the foot of Pilot Butte about 4 miles from Rock Springs. It is triangular in shape, the hangar being located in the apex. The surface of the field is good. The best approach is from the eastern side.

246.  Green River.-Follow the Union Pacific double-tracked railroad from Rock Springs. There is an emergency field here which is distinguished account of its being the only cleared space of its size, near town. Green River is crossed immediately after the city of Green River is passed. Here the course leaves the railroad which continues in a northwesterly direction. By flying approximately 2300 compass course from here. Cheyenne will be reached.

258.  Black Fork River.-A very irregular river. which is crossed at right angles. From Black Fork to Coalville the Union Pacific tracks are from 5 to 20 miles north of the course.

282.    Granger.-16 miles north of the course on the Union Pacific where the Oregon Short Line joins the Union Pacific from the north.

330.    Altamont.-On the Union Pacific where the Union Pacific approaches within 6 miles of the course to the north. The railroad passes through a short tunnel at this point.

338.    Evanston.-After approaching within 6 miles of the course, the railroad turns sharply to the northwest. Evanston is on the Union Pacific 18 miles north of course. There is a good emergency landing field on the southwest side of  Evanston, a mile from the railroad station. From Evanston the Union Pacific tracks curve toward the course until Coalville is reached.

363.    Coalville.-On the single track Union Pacific running north and south. The single track Union Pacific joins the double track 4 miles north of Coalville at Echo City. There is an emergency landing field here a mile east of the railroad and a half mile southeast of town. there is a marker on this field.

381.  Salt Lake City.-From Coalville the country is extremely rugged and the pilot should maintain at least 11,000 feet altitude above sea level. The field lies 2 miles west of the city on the north side of the road or street which extends east-west by the Salt Lake fair grounds. Locate the fair grounds, identified by an elliptical race track and large buildings. Follow westward along the road just south of the fair grounds and the field will be reached 11/2 miles further on. The field is about one half-mile long north and south and landings are usually made in one of these directions. a landing T is used to indicate the proper place to land. Elevation here is 4,400 feet. High-tension wires  border all sides of the field except the north.

SALT LAKE CITY TO RENO.

Miles.

0.      Salt Lake City.-Fly west from Salt Lake, keeping the two railroads running due west from Salt Lake to the south.

12.    Saltair.-Near the salt works there is an open field which is possible for an emergency landing. The field lies between the highway and the electric railroad that runs into Salt Lake City. Is rolling and covered sparsely with sagebrush and should be used only in case of absolute emergency.

14.    Antelope Island.-In the Great Salt Lake. 6 miles north of the course.

30.    Stansbury Island.-In the Great Salt Lake. The course crosses island about 2 miles from the southern edge.

45.    The Union Pacific Railroad is crossed where it runs northeast-southwest. Two miles north of the course the railroad makes a sharp bend and runs southeast-northwest.

50.    The Union Pacific Railroad. is crossed again. The Union Pacific continues southeastward from here for 10 miles and then turns westward and parallels the course to Wendover. The  course is 6 miles north of the railroad.

98.    Salduro.-On the Union Pacific Railroad. 6 miles south of the course. There is an emergency field here in vat No. 5, marked by a black T. The vat is circular. 400 feet in diameter and the bottom, composed of white salt,  is hard as a pavement.

108.    Wendover.-On the Union Pacific, 6 miles south of the course. Opposite the Conley Hotel and the Union Pacific station there is a landing field L shaped, 1,200 feet long each way and 600 feet wide, a good emergency field. Four miles west of Wendover the Union Pacific Railroad turns to the north and east and is crossed 8 miles west of Wendover. The railroad continues northwestward and reaches a northern point 11 miles from the course. The railroad curves and runs southeast, where it crosses the Nevada Northern. running north-south at Shafter.

130.  Shafter.-At the junction of the Nevada Northern and Western Pacific Railroads. Opposite the Western Pacific station at Shafter there is a stretch of ground 1,200 feet wide and unlimited in extent the long way, may be used for emergency landings. There is a scattering of sagebrush on this field.

145.  The Western Pacific Railroad  is crossed, running northwest-southeast, after it makes a loop to the south just beyond Shafter. The railroad veers to the north until it is 20 miles north of the course.

157.  Snow Water Lake.-An oblong body of water 3 miles south of the course. The long way of the lake extends parallel to the course.

170.  Secret Pas-in the Humboldt Range.-The only pass in this range for many miles. Some peaks in this range attain an altitude of more than 12,000 feet. The northern extremity of the Ruby Range extending north and south lies a few miles south of the course and is next seen. Then three branches of Tamoville Creek flowing north to the east fork of the Humboldt River are crossed at short intervals. The Southern Pacific and Western Pacific Railroads follow the course of the east fork of the Humboldt River and gradually converge on the course where all four join at Elko.

204.  Elko.-Lies in the Humboldt Valley. The air mail field is 1 mile west of the city, with the main runway east and west. Landings may be made from any direction , although it is advisable to land east and west. There is a ditch at the east end of the field. Following the general direction of the railroad tracks out of Elko, as they run parallel with the course for several miles.

224.  Carlin.-Between the Western Pacific and the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks, 1 mile south of the course.

238.  Harney.-Six miles south of the course, midway between the cities of Palisade and Beowawe on the Southern Pacific and western Pacific Railroads. South of the railroad tracks here is an emergency field 1,500 by 900 feet, with a shallow ditch in the center running across. Landing can be made safely across the ditch. There is a ranch house in one corner of the field. A narrow gauge railroad runs south from Palisade, a town 7 miles east of Harney.

246.  The course crosses the Western Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroad tracks. Up to this time the railroad tracks have been on the south of the course, but from now on the two railroads are to the north.

268.  Battle Mountain.-At the junction of the Southern Pacific and the Nevada Central Railroads, 8 miles north of the course. Battle Mountain lies in a valley surrounded on the east and west by high ranges. Here will be found an excellent landing field laid out in the form of an ellipse, marked with a T and a wind indicator. The field lies directly west of town. All types of supplies for service may be found here. From this point the railroads turn north and west and leave the course almost at right angles.

278.  The Nevada Central Railroad  is crossed 12 miles southwest of Battle Mountain. From here on the next 100 miles the course lies over uninhabited and desert country.

293.  Alkali Lake.-Lies on the northern edge of the course.

363.  Humboldt Lake.-The course adjoins the southern edge of this lake and crosses the Southern Pacific Railroad 5 miles beyond. If the elects to not fly the direct course, the Southern Pacific Railroad may be followed from Battle Mountain to Winnemucca, a distance of approximately 60 miles. At Winnemucca is an emergency field south of town, marked by a wind indicator and a T . Supplies necessary for reservicing a ship may be obtained here. At this point the Western Pacific continues on in a westward direction, while the Southern Pacific turns to the southwest. Following the Southern Pacific for 30 miles to the small town of Imlay will be reached. There is open unobstructed land on all sides of this town, suitable for emergency landings. Forty miles further on will be found the city of Lovelocks. A first class landing field is situated here on the eastern edge of the Southern Pacific tracks just south of town. A permanent T has been placed on the field  and a rolled runway constructed. Gas and oil may be obtained from the Standard Oil plant on the edge of the field, and at a near-by fertilizer plant there is a fully equipped machine shop which is offered for the use of any pilot who may need to make repairs to his ship. This field is level and is kept up in good shape. Pilots coming in must hold the ship up with the gun until they pass over a series of irrigation ditches at the end of the field. After these ditches have been passed a landing may be made. Numerous emergency landing fields may be found all the way between Winnemucca and Lovelocks. Twenty-five miles farther on the Southern Pacific joins the course 5 miles east of the southern edge of Humboldt Lake, into which the Humboldt River empties. To the south of Lake Humboldt is Carson Sink, which has a dry sandy bottom throughout the year and offers an ideal landing ground, but is uninhabited and pilots can not receive assistance except along the railroad. By following the Southern Pacific Railroad from Humboldt Lake southward for 25 miles, Hazen, Nev., will be reached.

388.  Hazen, Nev.-Fourteen miles south of the course on the Southern Pacific Railroad. Four branches of the railroad radiate out of Hazen. All about the town there are open fields of sufficient size to set down an airplane. The best landing field is to the south and east of the Southern Pacific roundhouse and is a space a mile long and half mile wide. Sage brush grows on the eastern portion of the field and the southern end is bound by a set of high-tension wires. A 40- foot T marks the field. If the pilot has flown as far south as Hazen he can follow the Southern Pacific westward into Reno. If he is on the direct course. he will cross the north branch of the Southern Pacific 7 miles north of where it joins the east-west main line at Fernley. Twelve miles to the north Pyramid Lake can be seen.

437.  Reno, Nev.-The air mail field at Reno lies 2 miles west of the city. The main runway lies east and west. The field is marked by a T and wind indicator. and landing from four ways is unobstructed. Reno is 4,497 feet above sea level. Whenever possible it is advisable to leave the Reno field on the east-west runway, taking off to the east. A slight downgrade enables the ship to quickly obtain flying speed. Just beyond the east edge of the field the ground is extremely and there is a huge ditch here.

RENO TO SAN FRANCISCO.

Miles

0.      Leaving the Reno field the pilot should head his ship southwest and gain altitude of at least 10,000 feet to pass safely over the Sierras. Practically all of this altitude should be obtained near the field before starting on the course.

20.    Lake Tahoe.-The northern edge of Lake Tahoe is 6 miles south of the course.

25.    Truckee.-On the Southern Pacific near the point where Lake Tahoe Railway joins the Southern Pacific from the south. Two and a half miles to the northwest of the Truckee lies a very good summertime emergency landing field. All approaches are clear and a space available for landing 600 by 2,000 feet. A big boulder painted white stands on the northwest side of the field and beside it is a white wind indicator. This field is to be avoided in winter, as snow gathers on it to a frequent depth of 4 feet. Soon after passing Turckee the Sierras are crossed. On the direct course 10,000 feet will clear the highest peak. but an altitude of 15,000 feet should be maintained. The Southern Pacific Railroad tracks veer to the west and north and from here on to Sacramento are at a varying distance of 5 to 20 miles north and west of the course.

65.    Colfax.-Seventeen miles northwest of the course on the Southern Pacific Railroad. Elevation here is 2,422 feet. A small level field lies one-half mile south of the city. The field should be used only in an emergency. as it is difficult to get into and during the rainy season is very soft. The field is 600 by 300 feet.

85.    Shingle Springs.-Seven miles south and east of the course, on the Placerville Branch of the Southern Pacific that runs from Placerville to Sacramento. There is a field here one-half mile west of Shingle Springs, bounded on the north by a highway running to Placerville and on the south by the Southern Pacific tracks. The field is 1,500 yards long north and south and 300 yards wide east and west. The ground is level hard and smooth. The elevation here is approximately 1,000 feet.

95.    The Southern Pacific, Running from Placerville to Sacramento, is crossed at right angles 1 mile southeast of where it makes a right-angular bend and approximately parallels the course for the next 15 miles. The course lies from 1 to 3 miles southeast of the tracks.

112.  Mather Field.- Is the Army Air Service station in the Sacramento Valley, equipped like all Air Service flying fields. It is located to the east of Sacramento and near the small siding called Mills, 2 miles north and east of the course. A huge white water tower serves as an excellent landmark as well as the three lines of buildings on the ground. Three railroads are crossed in a stretch of less than 10 miles soon after leaving Mather Field. The Southern Pacific Railroad is to the northeast of the course at a varying distance of 10 to 15 miles after leaving Mather Field. Southwest of the course the Sacramento River will be seen soon after crossing the three railroad tracks at a distance of 5 to 10 miles.

152.  Suison Bay.-Into which the Sacramento River empties, a large oblong body of water parallel to the course. The pilot will fly along the southwest side of the bay.

162.    Martinez.- On the southeast corner of Suison bay. One mile northwest of the course.

177.  Durant Field, Oakland Calif.- On the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. The field runs almost due east and west and has a hangar, wind indicator, and T laid out on it. By coming in from the east over the hangar an unobstructed run of about 2,000 feet is obtained. North and south the field is rather narrow and somewhat rough. All supplies necessary for reservicing a ship may be obtained here. From here fly directly across San Francisco Bay. The course goes directly over Alcatraz Island, covered with white Government Buildings. Goat Island, larger than Alcatraz, and more irregularly shaped, on which is located the Naval Station to be seen to the south.

187.  Marina Field.- Is stationed on the south of San Francisco Bay, 3 miles from the Golden Gate, on the east portion of the old fair grounds. It can be identified by the Palace of Fine Arts Building, which has a large dome roof, at the west end of the field; a monument 150 feet high, Column of Progress, is on the north side of the field. The city of San Francisco is to the south. There is a prevailing  southwest wind here. A double line of wires borders the eastern edge of the field and this, in conjunction with the gas plant in the same vicinity, forces the pilot to come in high. The pilot should hold the ship off until the runway is reached coming in either direction, as both the east and west edge of the field are very rough. Landing should not be attempted from any direction other than the east and west.

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